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ASA Style

Links to helpful websites, citation examples, and personal assistance using the style guide of the American Sociological Association (ASA).

Journal Articles in ASA Style

Periodical: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (First name(s) Last name(s)), and Author 3. Year of publication. "Article Title." Name of Publication (italicized) Volume Number (Issue Number):starting page #-ending page #.

Journal Article with One Author

Campbell, Mary E. 2009. "Multiracial Groups and Educational Inequality: A Rainbow Or a Divide?" Social Problems 56(3):425-446.

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

Moller, Stephanie, Arthur S. Alderson, and Francois Nielsen. 2009. "Changing Patterns of Income Inequality in U.S. Counties, 1970-2000." American Journal of Sociology 114(4):1037-1101.

Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Fowler, Veronica Lorson. 2022. "Midlands Voices: Addressing the myths about trans girls competing in sports." Opinion, Omaha World-Herald, March 3.

Journal Article from an Online Resource without Page Numbers

Lesser, Lawrence M. 2007. "Critical Values and Transforming Data: Teaching Statistics with Social Justice." Journal of Statistics Education 15(1).

Journal Article from an Online Resource with a Digital Object Identifer (DOI)

Pearson, A. Fiona. 2010. "Real Problems, Virtual Solutions: Engaging Students Online." Teaching Sociology 38(3):207-214. doi:10.1177/0092055X10370115.

For additional examples, see section 4.3 on pages 55-63 and section 5.2.2 on pages 87-88 in the ASA's Style Guide (2022).

Books in ASA Style

Book: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (surname last), and Author 3. Year of publication. Book Title. Location of publisher, state or province (replace state/province with country if a non-US/Canada publisher): Publisher's Name.

An ",eds." is appended to an author(s) entry to indicate the name(s) of editors.

If no date of publication is available, use n.d. in place of the date.

Book with One Author/Editor

Beeghley, Leonard. 2000. The structure of social stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Book with Two Authors/Editors

Lareau, Annette and Dalton Conley, eds. 2008. Social class: how does it work? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Book with Three or More Authors/Editors

List all authors up to 10. If there are more than 10 authors, list the first seven, followed by et al.

Scott, Jacqueline, and Rosemary Crompton, and Clare Lyonette, eds. 2010. Gender inequalities in the 21st century: new barriers and continuing constraints. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Ebooks can vary a lot. The goal with a citation is to help your reader find the original source of information you're citing. Include a URL where possible - DOIs are best because they don't change. If the URL isn't available to everyone, like if it requires a log-in, don't include it. 

When you're accessing a library book online, list the database name at the end of the citation instead of a link (Example 2). Similarly, list the format of an ebook if it's something you download (EPUB, PDF) because that impacts page numbering (Example 3).

Example 1:

Kleihege, George William. 1933. The Elementary Course in Sociology in 100 American Colleges and Universities. Ann Arbor, MI.: Edwards Brothers, Inc.

Example 2:

Kendi, Ibram X. 2016. Stamped from the Beginning: the Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. New York: Nation Books. EBSCOhost.

Example 3:

Peterson, Jillian, and Densley, James. 2021. The Violence Project : How to Stop a Mass Shooting Epidemic. New York: Abrams, Inc. Adobe Digital Editions EPUB.

Chapter in a Book or Encyclopedia Entry.

Follow general formatting from Book, above. Author1, Author2, and Author3. Publication year. "Title of chapter." Pp. starting page-endingpage in Name of Publication, edited by Editor1, Editor2, and Editor3. Publisher location, state or province post code (or country): Publisher's Name.

For continually updated resources such as an online encyclopedia or Wikipedia entry, the date should reflect the date accessed (encyclopedia) or the most recent edit date (Wikipedia).  See page 87 of the ASA's Style Guide (2022).

Zambrana, Ruth E. and Victoria-Maria MacDonald. 2009. "Staggered Inequalities in Access to
Higher Education by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity." Pp. 73-100 in Emerging Intersections: Race, Class, and Gender in Theory, Policy, and Practice, edited by B.T. Dill and R.E. Zambrana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Book with more than one edition Hannigan, John. 2006. Environmental Sociology. 2nd. ed. London: Routledge.

For additional examples, see section 4.3.2, pages 59, 61-63, and 67-68. See also section 5.2.1 on pages 85-88 in the ASA's Style Guide (2022).

Websites in ASA Style

Include as much information as you can find about the website. Key bits of information: title of specific page used, title of the whole site, owner/publisher of the site, publication or revision date, URL.

Institution with a known location

American Sociological Association. 2006. "Status Committees." Washingon, D.C.: American Sociological Association.

Institution at an unknown location

IBM. 2019. "2019 Annual Report."

Unknown publication date

WERA (World Education Research Association). n.d. "About WERA." Accessed February 21, 2022.

For additional examples, see section 5.2.3 on pages 88-90 in the ASA's Style Guide (2022).

Additional Digital Sources in ASA Style

Resources in this section can generally be cited in-text, without the need for a citation in the reference list. Include them in the reference list if you cite them extensively or they're crucial to your argument.

Blog post or comments

Cite blog posts like online newspaper articles. 

Isaac, Kendall D. "Doing DEI Better." Conditionally Accepted (blog), Inside Higher Ed. July 30, 2021.

Email, text, or other personal communication

Obtain permission from the owner before citing personal correspondence. Do NOT include the email address/phone #.

Text: In an email message to the author,1 Sanchez indicated that she would be participating in the research project.

Footnote: 1 Maria Sanchez, email message to author, February 20, 2022.


Production company. Year released. Title of game, version number.  Publisher/Production company, platform.

PopCap. 2013 Plants vs. Zombies 2: It's About Time, v 9.9.2.  PopCap and Electronic Arts, iPad 3 or later.


Meiser, Ellen T. and Omar T. Bird. 2022. "LGBTQ Caregiving." January 12 in The Social Breakdown, podcast.


If you're citing the same account frequently, cite it in the reference list. Else, in-text citation is sufficient.

Durham Cathedral Library (@BedesBooks). 2022. "This album of over 400 letters collected by Georgiana, Baroness Bloomfield (d.1905), includes a note to Georgiana from the Duke of Wellington sending apologies for not visiting her - but he worried a walk through the rain might damage his high hat. #ExploreYourArchive #EYALetters." Twitter, February 21, 10:10 a.m.


(ASA) American Sociological Association. 2018. "Research from Sociology of Education: Johns Hopkins University sociologist Julia Burdick-Will discovered that the consequences of neighborhood violence reach further than previously known, even spilling over to students who come from safe neighborhoods." Facebook, July 4.


McCright, Aaron. 2020. "Climate Change and Polarized America." Produced by the American Sociological Association. August 15. Video.

For additional examples, see section 5.2.4-5.2.12 on pages 90-94 in the ASA's Style Guide (2022).