Skip to main content

APA Style: References

Links to helpful websites, citation examples, and personal assistance using the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA).

Journal Articles in APA Style

Journal: General

Authorlastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.)

Journal Article with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article without DOI

Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40, 156-159.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination (Each issue begins on page 1)

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.

E-Journal Article Paginated by Article (Each article begins on page 1)

Corley M, Hartsuiker RJ (2011) Why um helps auditory word recognition: The temporal delay hypothesis. PLoS ONE 6(5). 10.1371/journal.pone.0019792

Magazine Article

Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Online Magazine Article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Newspaper Article

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).

Books in APA Style

Book: General

Authorlastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
Authorlastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
Authorlastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Entire Book: Print Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Entire Book:
Print Version (Two Authors)

Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism

Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/trebuchet

Book:
No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).

Other Online Sources in APA Style

Webpage with no author

When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry: For example: 

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

Online Posting: General

Authorlastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

(If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.)

Website material with no author, no year, and no page numbers

An in-text citation would include the title (or short title) "n.d." for no date, and paragraph number (e.g., "Heuristic," n.d., para. 1). The entry in the references list might look something like this:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retreived from http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)


For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) and the Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style.

Ask a Librarian

Copyright

These APA examples were originally created by Scott Pfitzinger, Information Commons & Technology Librarian at Butler University, Indianapolis, IN, and adapted with permission by Jon Ritterbush, E-Resources and Serials Librarian at University of Nebraska-Kearney. Other users of LibGuides are welcome to use this Guide as a template and to make changes as necessary to fit their custom needs.