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Library Collection Development Policy: Home

This policy provides a framework from which to make future collection development decisions. It provides a roadmap as to where the Library wants to go and an understanding of where it has been. It is a dynamic document that is continuously reviewed and ed

I. Background, Mission, Vision, Policy

Background

Selectivity and response to specific needs have become the hallmarks of collection building for the 21st century. The philosophy of collection development that centered on acquiring everything available on locally important subjects has given way to the realization that no academic library, no matter how well endowed, can obtain comprehensive coverage of multiple disciplines and specializations. Factors that have contributed to this change include the growing number of print and electronic publications, cost escalations that far exceed increases in appropriations for library materials, the broadening of academic program and degree offerings, and the demand for the increased research capability and convenience that electronic indexes and full text databases provide.

The University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) is a co-educational, master's degree granting institution. It is located on a beautiful, technology-rich, 235-acre residential campus with more than 37 buildings in Kearney, Nebraska. Founded in 1905, UNK became a part of the Nebraska University System in 1991.

In 2010/11 the university served a student population of 6500. Of these, 5,104 are undergraduates and 1,439 are graduate students. There are 400 faculty members with a student/faculty ratio of 16/1.

The Calvin T. Ryan Library (Library) provides access to materials in a variety of formats that support the curriculum and also provides access for its undergraduate, graduate and faculty research needs.

Calvin T. Ryan Library Mission

The Calvin T. Ryan Library supports the University of Nebraska - Kearney mission by:

  • acquiring and organizing resources;
  • providing collaborative assistance and instruction;
  • meeting information needs;
  • and adhering to recognized standards of library practice.

 

Calvin T. Ryan Library Vision

The Calvin T. Ryan Library will achieve prominence as an innovative provider of user-focused resources and services.

Policy

The Collection Development Policy outlines the principles used for the acquisition and purchase of materials in all formats within the limits of the university's fiscal resources. The Library faculty and staff collaborate with other faculty members to utilize allocated funds in a manner consistent with departmental and programmatic priorities and this collection development policy. This policy provides guidelines that assure quality and relevance in the acquisition and retention of materials designed to support the mission of UNK.

With this in mind, continuous assessment of the collection enables selectors to have a firm grasp of what the Library provides in each classification or category. This knowledge and an understanding of the information needs of students and faculty provide a framework to build the collections that support the curriculum and research of the University of Nebraska at Kearney.

This collection development policy builds on the principles outlined in the Library Bill of Rights (American Library Association) (Appendix A), the Freedom to Read Statement (American Library Association and Association of American Publishers) (Appendix B), and the Freedom to View Statement (American Film and Video Association) (Appendix C).

II. Selection Parameters, Additional Guidelines

Selection of materials is completed in the following manner:

  • Library faculty members serve as liaisons to each department and program. In collaboration with departmental faculty, the liaison librarians build the collections based on curricular and research needs.
  • Final approval concerning acquisitions resides within the professional responsibilities of the liaison librarians.
  • The major factors that influence the acquisition of information resources are:
    • Relevance to the curriculum and research programs of UNK;
    • Balance of viewpoints in the collection;
    • Accuracy and objectivity;
    • Professional reviewing recommendations; and,
    • Reputation of the author, publisher, and/or producer

     

    These factors may not apply to some collections within the Library, such as the Curriculum or the Government Document collections.

    Selection also includes facilitating access to electronic and other resources and services that may or may not be physically located in, or owned by, the Library.

 

Additional Guidelines for Selecting Materials

Suggested resources for reviews

The following are the primary resources used by the librarians and other faculty for the selection of materials:
  • Choice magazine
  • Book reviews in pertinent journals
  • Publisher catalogs

Format of Material

Resources for scholarship and leisure are not limited by format. The Library collects material in a variety of formats that include books, periodicals, electronic resources, visual materials such as videos and DVDs, as well as educational materials in the form of kits, games and other unique formats.

Media materials are collected in current formats only.

Acquisition requests and gifts of audio and visual materials in dated or obsolete formats will be referred to the Collection Services Librarian and evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Languages & translations

Material included in the Library's collection consists of those primarily in the English language. Materials in languages taught at UNK are included as well as languages spoken by students and faculty and staff.

Multiple copies and duplication of materials

Multiple copies are not routinely collected. However, the Library may collect two copies of materials when one is destined for the Archives or other special collections.

Most periodicals are collected in one format, either paper or online. A few titles may also be collected in multiple formats at the discretion of the librarians.

Lab manuals and textbooks

Manuals, laboratory books and most textbooks are not routinely collected by the Library. The exception to this is the collecting of PreK-12 textbooks as examples of materials used in the classroom.

At UNK students are expected to purchase their own materials for classroom use. Faculty members follow college and departmental guidelines for acquisitions.

Interlibrary Loan & Document Delivery Services

The library provides access to materials not owned by the library through Interlibrary Loan & Document Delivery (ILL/DD). ILL/DD obtains these materials from other libraries using the OCLC ILLiad system.

Books, and other returnables, are loaned for a period of time specified by the lending library. Journal articles are delivered electronically in the requestor's ILLiad account and are available for 30 days.

If a particular book or journal is frequently requested, the Library will determine whether to purchase the item in question.

Genealogical Materials

The library does not routinely acquire genealogical materials.

Collection evaluation, weeding, replacement and cancellations

Weeding and replacing materials are done on a regular basis. Weeding is a term used to describe evaluating and possibly removing material from the collection. Material is evaluated for removal for a variety of reasons including:

  • Outdated information
  • Physical condition
  • Change in the focus of the collection due to University curriculum needs

 

Gifts

The Library welcomes gifts of materials for the Library's collections. Gifts supplement the Library's purchase of materials, providing items otherwise unavailable.

To help inform donors as to what is an appropriate gift and to insure that gifts are properly placed in the Library's collections, procedures have been adopted. Please see  Appendix D.

Objections

Library users who object to items in the collection may share their concerns with the appropriate subject librarian and the Dean of the Library. Concerns will be evaluated in the context of the standards and principles of the American Library Association (including, but not limited to, the ALA Library Bill of Rights, Freedom to Read Statement, and the ALA Code of Ethics) and this collection development policy. (See Appendix E for the detailed procedure.)

III. Collection Development Policies for Specialized Collections

Unique collection development policies have been developed for various collections within the Library to address their unique situation. However, these collections follow the main collection development policy, unless otherwise noted.

Archives

The Archives of the University of Nebraska at Kearney selects, evaluates, organizes, and makes available the noncurrent records of the University of Nebraska at Kearney, and where appropriate of its faculty and staff, and where appropriate of the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska. Records are chosen because of their continuing administrative, legal, historical, or research value as determined by the University Archivist. Records/materials signifies any medium which is employed to transmit information including paper, film, photographs (prints and negatives), paintings and drawings, audio and video or digital media, realia, etc.

Scope

The scope of the Archives is:

  • Records Management
    • Current collecting of records and documents from University of Nebraska at Kearney offices, colleges, schools, and departments is on a case by case basis, pending development and implementation of a records retention policy.
  • University of Nebraska at Kearney History and Culture
    • The University Archives is a repository for documents, publications, images, and media of permanent historical value relating to the history of the University of Nebraska at Kearney. Materials are retained in the Archives if they are unique or if they document the history of the college or demonstrate the work and purpose of an office or organization.
    • Materials produced by professors, staff, and alumni are an important record of UNK activities and are actively collected.
  • History of Education
    • The Archives collects materials related to the history of education, with a particular focus on rural schoolhouses and Nebraska schools. Notable collections include the One Room Schoolhouse Oral History project materials.
  • Central and Western Nebraska
    • The Archives strives to preserve the heritage of Central and Western Nebraska by collecting materials that document local life, including materials produced by towns, businesses, community organizations, and individuals.

Special Collections

The Library's Special Collection is a collection of about 2,400 cataloged items, mostly books, concerning the history of Nebraska, the Plains, and the West. Some of the items are rare and many of them are irreplaceable. Items are cataloged and searchable via the library catalog.

Scope

The scope of the Special Collections is:

  • Significant works concerning Nebraska.
  • Works by notable University of Nebraska Kearney and Nebraska authors.
  • Materials documenting the history of education.
  • Materials that support the Archives scope.
  • Rare and valuable items.

Other items may be added at the discretion of the Dean of the Library, the Coordinator for Collection Services, or the University Archivist.

Curriculum Collections

Individual policies for the various materials collected in the Curriculum Collection are as follows:

Art Prints

The primary purpose of the Art Print collection is to provide UNK faculty, students and staff with access to reproductions of art, although not actively collected. Purchases are made in response to faculty requests. Appendix F1

Cards

The Cards collection contains flashcard-type studying and instruction materials, collected to facilitate preparation for the classroom experience of future educators. Appendix F2

Charts

Charts is a collection of large format images related to specific curriculum and instructional areas, collected to facilitate preparation for the classroom experience of future educators. Appendix F3

Curriculum & teaching support materials

Primarily practical instructional materials in book format, appropriate for early childhood, elementary and secondary education. Appendix F4

ERIC

Microfiche format documents made available through the United State's Department of Education, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC). Current documents are released in digital form and are freely available. Non-digitized documents released between 1966 and 2004 are available through the microfiche ERIC Collection. Appendix F5

Games

Games appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. The materials for collected to facilitate preparation for the pre-K through 12th grade classroom. Appendix F6

Juvenile Literature

Literature written for children and young adult readers is the primary focus of the collection. The collection focuses on award winning titles, titles supporting typical pre-K-12th grade discipline areas (such as math and social sciences) and titles of particular interest to Nebraska and the Plains region. Attention is paid to adding titles with potential controversial content to aid research, as well as making the items available to regional patrons who might not otherwise have access to the resources. The collection is both contemporary and historical, striving to provide titles needed for the study of juvenile literature as a discipline. Young adult literature in this collection is frequently borrowed for pleasure reading by students, staff, and faculty members as well. International students find the high interest, low vocabulary materials written for a juvenile audience helpful as they acquire English language skills. Appendix F7

Juvenile Magazines

The Juvenile Magazines collection contains magazines written for a juvenile audience. Through the collection, resources for instruction and teacher preparation for the classroom are provided. Appendix F8

Kits

Kits appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. The following subject areas are represented: art, health, life sciences, literature, mathematics, physical sciences, reading, social sciences, United States History, and life skills. Appendix F9

Manipulatives

This collection contains Math and Science manipulative objects. Appendix F10

Models

The models consist of materials that are surrogates for real world objects, such as models of human brains. Appendix F11

Puppets

Puppets used in instruction are the items that make up this collection. Appendix F12

Relia

Real world items used in instruction make up this collection. Appendix F13

Study Prints

The Study Prints collection contains images and text related to specific curriculum and instructional areas, collected to facilitate preparation for the classroom experience of future educators. Appendix F14

Tests

Tests related to the area of Speech and Language Acquisition are the primary focus of the collection. Purchases are made in response to requests from UNK faculty members. All tests are restricted in use. Appendix F15

Textbooks

Textbooks appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. Appendix F16

Historical Textbooks

A small Historical Textbook Collection is also part of the Curriculum area's collections. Appendix F17

Electronic Resources

In general, the electronic resources listed below will fall within the scope of this policy document. This policy addresses purchased and free electronic resources, such as:

  • Web-based databases that facilitate searching and retrieval of the following:
    • Bibliographic citations
    • Textual works
    • Images or sound files
    • Statistical data
  • Electronic books
    • monographs or continuing series
    • collections of titles
    • individual titles
  • Non-networked digital media limited to in-library use by technical or licensing constraints

 

A detailed list of criteria to consider when selecting new or reviewing existing electronic resources, although not all-inclusive, appears in Appendix G and Appendix H.

In General:

  • Interdisciplinary electronic resources will be considered as well as subject-specific resources
  • Electronic formats are preferred over fixed formats when the same content is available in both.
  • Electronic resources under consideration must be easily accessible to all licensed users and functional in terms of systems requirements.

 

Periodicals (Electronic & Print)

Only electronic format journal subscriptions will be maintained at the Library if the following criteria are met:

  • Usage statistics indicate that demand for non-electronic formats (e.g. print or microform) does not warrant continuing access, based on consultation with the affected liaison and department
  • Content, such as articles, book reviews and letters are available electronically in PDF format or another similar graphic format
  • The Library retains post-cancellation access rights to purchased journal content and they are easily accessible.

 

The Library subscribes to journals in multiple formats only when the purchase of an electronic format requires it (i.e., print and online) or the print subscription is preserved in a microform format.

Subscriptions to microform formats are maintained for those titles not available in an electronic format or not meeting the criteria for electronic format retention.

Subscriptions to the print format of journals will be maintained if the electronic format does not provide immediate access due to a publisher's embargo on current issues.

When subscriptions are canceled due to duplication of issues, the print or microform duplicates will be withdrawn in favor of the electronic access.

Some periodicals will be maintained in a print format to provide easy access for leisure reading.

Federal Government Publications

The purpose of Calvin T. Ryan Library's government documents collections, which include federal and Nebraska state government documents, is to serve the needs of the UNK undergraduate and graduate curriculum, its students, faculty, administrators, and staff, as articulated in the mission statement, above.

In accordance with requirements defined in the Federal Depository Library Handbook, Chapter 5, information needs of the residents of the Third Congressional District of Nebraska must also be considered.

Calvin T. Ryan Library was designated a federal depository in 1962 and is one of two federal government document depository libraries in the Third Congressional District of Nebraska. The depository library program is coordinated by the U. S. Government Printing Office (GPO). The Library was designated a depository for Nebraska state documents in 1978.

Calvin T. Ryan Library and the other smaller federal depository 300 miles west of Kearney are responsible for providing service to a geographical area covering approximately two-thirds of the state of Nebraska, comprising the Third Congressional District: 62,879 square miles (Nebraska: 76,877 square miles). The nearest depository to the east is 130 miles away in Lincoln and all other federal depositories in Nebraska are east of Lincoln. There are no depositories in Nebraska to the north or south of Kearney. Collection development parameters for C. T. Ryan Library, therefore, are different than would be the case if another federal government documents depository was nearby.

The Library currently selects 55% of the item numbers available to depository libraries. Selection is based on current and potential information needs of faculty and students, faculty research, information requested by community users, actual use of similar materials, and potential for use. As electronic access to government information continues to expand, the Documents Librarian will keep abreast of developments. The Library will provide access to electronic formats to the best of its ability. (See "Formats", "Access", and "Electronic Access" sections.) The Library purchased a subscription to Marcive's "Documents Without Shelves". This service provides access to all new electronic-format government documents. These items are located in the Library's online catalog. This addition of electronic-only publications will result in a large increase in the percent of item numbers selected by the Library.

Subject Areas of the Depository Collection

The Library selects what it wishes to receive in electronic-only series following guidelines used for tangible formats. Beginning in 2005, all new tangible government documents are cataloged and linked if also available online. Electronic-only titles are individually selected for addition to the catalog.

For complete details of the collection policy for government documents, please see Appendix I.

Nebraska Government Documents

As a Nebraska state documents depository, the Library received all documents sent to it under this program. There was no selectivity and documents were sent on microfiche only. Distribution of depository state documents on microfiche ceased in 2005 in favor of making full-text documents available electronically. Nebraska government agencies are increasing distribution of their publications in electronic formats. Periodic lists of new electronic titles from NLC are reviewed for titles to add and link in the online catalog.

The Documents Department also receives selected paper Nebraska documents that are ordered on a title-by-title basis or receives directly from various state agencies. Flyers, periodicals, and other sources are reviewed for additional titles to order for the collection.

Maps

Other than those maps contained in the federal government document collection, the Library does not collect maps. Atlases and globes are included in the book and curriculum policies.

Popular and leisure reading, browsing collection, paperbacks

The Library provides material to read in a variety of popular genres and formats. In addition the Library also has eBooks, audio books and DVDs for leisure activities. This material is mainly acquired through gift donations, unless covered by a course.

Reference Collection

Reference materials may be in the form of paper or online. Many reference titles have become available online and provide more current information and are more easily accessible. As a result the Reference collection in paper format will gradually be replaced by online versions of most titles and/or the paper version will be moved to the book collection.

Theses

All Master's theses written at the University of Nebraska at Kearney are collected. One copy is placed in the Library Archives and the other is in the book collection. In addition, theses and dissertations published in microform sets or purchased through ProQuest are cataloged and added to the collection.

Policy Review & Revision

This policy will be reviewed and revised by the library faculty as needed, but at least every five years, to reflect changes in the library environment.

Appendix D: Gifts Policy

Gifts to the Library may be accepted by the Dean of the Library and the Collection Services Librarian. Individuals wishing to donate should email wilkej@unk.edu or telephone the library at 308.865.8535.

Donations made specifically to the Library's Curriculum Collection are accepted by the Curriculum Librarian at kruegerr@unk.edu. The telephone number: 308.865.8276.

Donations made specifically to the Special Collections are accepted by the Collection Services Librarian at muellersm@unk.edu. The telephone number: 308.865.8853.

Donations made specifically to the University Archives are accepted by the Archives Librarian at andersong@unk.edu. The telephone number: 308.865.8593.

The Library reserves the right to turn down any donation. Examples include college textbooks, damaged or defaced materials, and materials that do not con tribute to the mission of the Library or the University.

The Library reserves the right to dispose of any accepted materials as the Library deems appropriate in accordance with the needs of the Library and the University. At the time the donation is made, donors may request that materials not useful to the Library be returned. The Library will decide where gift materials will be placed in the collections. Any restrictions requested by donors must be approved in writing by the Dean of the Library at the time the gift is made.

Materials accepted by the Library and added to the collections become the property of the Library and the University and are subject to the policies and procedures that govern Library collections.

Donors are asked to bring gifts to the Library or have them sent. However, if it is impossible to bring the donation to the Library, materials may be picked up by Library staff, if feasible.

Each donor will receive a letter from the Dean acknowledging the gift. In accordance with the Statement on Appraisals of Gifts adopted by the Association of College and Research Libraries, the Library as an interested party cannot make appraisals of gifts. Acceptance of a gift does not mean the Library endorses an appraisal.

Donations may be publicized in Library and university publications. A donor must indicate to the Dean of the Library in writing if they wish the gift to remain anonymous.

Special Donation Guidelines

The Library is pleased to consider offers of unique or specialized collections that do not necessarily meet the standard guidelines above. In some cases, the Library may send a subject expert to review a special collection. To discuss a donation that is of unique value, please contact the Dean of the Library at: 308.865.8535.

 

Appendix E: Objection Procedure

On occasion, an individual or group of individuals may question why a particular item is in the Library's collection. When this happens the following steps will be followed in order:

  • Contact the Collection Services librarian, who will contact the Dean of the Library. The librarian will explain the Library's policy concerning collection development. If this isn't acceptable,
  • Complete the Collection Review form and submit it to the Chair of the Collection Development Committee for review. The committee reviews the challenge form and a copy of the review is provided to the challenger. If the result is still unacceptable,
  • The submitted form and the committee's review are sent to the Faculty Senate Library Committee and the Dean of the Library for review. The Library Committee and the Dean provide a review of the objection and a copy of the review is provided to the challenger. Finally, if the result is still unacceptable,
  • The submitted form, committee reviews, and Dean's review are sent to the Senior Vice Chancellor of Academic and Student Affairs for a final decision.

Appendix F1: Art Prints

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty, students, and staff with access to reproductions of art in the form of art prints. Examplars of art methods, techniques, schools, and artists are identified through tags on the records.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Much of the collection is not cataloged (the collection is one of many that were not cataloged into the OPAC at the time it was adopted as the library catalog). In 2010, a cataloging project was initiated. As of November, 2011, approximately 440 art print sets and individual items were cataloged; 130 sets remain to be cataloged.

Estimate of Holdings:

Approximately 600 art print sets.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level.

Chronological:

The collection includes reproductions of historical artifacts through modern artwork.

Library Collection Development Policy - Appendices

Appendix F1: Cards

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty and students with access to flash-card type study materials.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Much of the collection was not cataloged when the library adopted its present OPAC. In 2011, the collection was weeded and the remaining items cataloged into the OPAC.

Estimate of Holdings:

Approximately 20 card collections.

Acquisition:

Items are not purchased for this collection. Recently acquired card sets (like the majority of the gifts from SuperDuper Publications) have been added to the Game Collection.

Removal:

Flashcards only become obsolete when the data is no longer accurate or the items become worn. As noted above, the collection was weeded in 2011 to remove such items. Much of the collection was previously uncataloged (prior to 2011 when the entire remaining collection was cataloged), so use statistics don't exist. It is planned to move part of the collection to the math manipulative collection in the near term.

Language:

English is the primary language of the collection.

Chronological:

Most of the materials in this collection are older. Newer card format items have been added to the Games Collection.

Appendix F: Charts

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty, students, and staff with access to large format images related to specific study needs.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Much of the collection was not cataloged when the library adopted its present OPAC. In 2011, the collection was weeded and the remaining items cataloged into the OPAC.

Estimate of Holdings:

Approximately 50 items.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level

Acquisition:

Items are purchased for this collection based on requests from faculty members. Charts are not actively collected.

Removal:

Charts only become obsolete when the data is no longer accurate or the items become worn. As noted above, the collection was weeded in 2011 to remove such items. Much of the collection was previously uncataloged (prior to 2011 when the entire remaining collection was cataloged), so use statistics don't exist.

Language:

English is the primary language of the collection.

Chronological:

The charts appear to date back to 1980. New materials have not been added to the collection since 2007.

Appendix F: Curriculum & Teaching Support Materials

Description:

Purpose:

Primarily, to provide area educators (UNK education students and faculty, teachers in area schools, parents and other members of the general public) access to practical teaching resources, such as curriculum guidelines and teaching support materials.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Prior to 2011, Curriculum Guidelines were removed from the collection. States, local school districts, and professional organizations now tend to publish curriculum guidelines and standards online. The existing Curriculum Guideline collection is, as of January 2012, being processed using archival methods to ensure that these historical items remain available for researchers. When the project is complete, the materials will be findable through a digital finding aid.

Curriculum Guidelines were defined by Janet Wilke, former Curriculum Librarian and current Dean of the Library, in her Curriculum and Media Collection Development Policy from May 1989 as follows:

  • A curriculum guide is "a substitute for a formal course of study in which desirable content is suggested rather than prescribed; includes important goals and a variety of learning experiences, teaching aids, and evaluation techniques, from which those considered best suited to a particular situation may be selected." A course of study is "…an aid to teaching in a given subject or area of study for a given grade, combination of grades, or other designated class or instruction group; may include the aims of the course, the expected outcomes, and the scope and nature of the materials to be studied, with suggestions as to suitable, textbooks, supplementary reading, activities, suggested learning experiences, teaching methods, and measurement of achievement." (Dictionary of Education, Carter V. Good, editor. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973, p. 150, 159.) An item is included in the curriculum guides/courses of study portion of the Teaching Resources Collection if it meets either of these definitions.
  • Curriculum guides/courses of study for grades N-12 from the state and national level are collected selectively, while an attempt is made to acquire local ones comprehensively. Collection emphasis is on materials produced by school systems, school districts, and state departments of education; however, other commercially produced guides/courses of study are also acquired. An attempt is made to provide representative examples for all areas of teaching endorsements offered by Kearney State College.

 

In the Curriculum and Media Collection Development Policy from May 1989, Teaching Support Materials are described as follows:

  • Teaching support materials are materials containing specific teaching suggestions and ideas on construction of units, lesson plans, exercises and various other teaching and classroom activities. This category includes material to be used by a teacher in a classroom with students or as part of a lesson or unit.
  • Materials supporting the evaluation, study, theory, bibliography or philosophy of classroom teaching are not included in the teaching support materials portion of the Teaching Resources Collection unless they consist predominantly of teaching activities or ideas.

 

Teaching Support Materials are classified with the "curr" code above the Library of Congress call number.

Note related to the classification code "curr": The "curr" code is also used to identify print versions of children's magazines.

Estimate of Holdings:

There are approximately 4000 individual items in the Curriculum Guidelines and Teaching Support Materials collection.

State, Regional, and National Importance:

The collection serves as a regional resource to area teachers, homeschoolers, and parents, as well as supplementing the educational resources available to the University of Nebraska at Kearney, College of Education.

Locaation of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Treatment of Subject:

Primarily practical instructional materials appropriate for early childhood, elementary and secondary education encompassing the following:

  • Academic subject areas: algebra, art, biology, business education, chemistry, computers, consumer education, drama, economics, foreign language, geography, geometry, grammar, health, history, language arts, literature, mathematics, multicultural education, music, Nebraska history, philosophy, physical education, physics, reading, science, social science, spelling, and, vocational education.
  • Methods for providing instruction: activity sheets, bulletin boards, calculators, computers, exercises, experiments, finger play, food preparation, games, gardens, manipulatives, maps, music, primary sources, puppets, puzzles, readers' theater, storytelling, and, writing.
  • Issues and techniques: assessment, books (best books and awards), classroom environment, classroom management, cooperation/competition, critical thinking, curriculum planning, differentiated instruction, early childhood education, English language learning, gifted children, group work, inclusion, library orientation, psychological issues (e.g. self-esteem or motivation), remedial instruction, service learning, and, special education.

 

Types of Material:

Practical teaching support materials, such as activity and curriculum guides, handbooks, and manuals, containing suggested exercises, experiments, problem solving techniques, treatment options (especially as regards classroom management), assessment and evaluation methods, techniques for addressing various classroom issues, programs, teaching aids and tools.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

Appendix F: ERIC

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty and students with access to documents released by the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the United State's Department of Education.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

129,312 documents.

State, Regional, and National Importance:

The collection serves as a resource for UNK faculty, students and members of the region.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Lever in the Curriculum Meeting Room.

Acquisition:

Documents are no longer added to this collection as the agency producing them currently releases the documents in digital format and makes access freely available.

Removal:

The collection was weeded in 2010. At that time all of the items available digitally and freely on the Internet were removed. Additional documents will be removed as the right to digitize them is obtained and the digitized records released by ERIC.

Language:

English is the primary language of the collection. The most common other language is Spanish.

Chronological:

The collection includes documents from 1966 to 2004.

Place of Publication:

ERIC published the materials in the collection.

Appendix F: Games

Description:

Purpose:

To provide educators (UNK education students and faculty) access to educational games.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

Approximately 400 games.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Treatment of Subject:

Games appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. The following subject areas are represented: art, health, life sciences, literature, mathematics, physical sciences, reading, social sciences, United States History, and life skills.

Types of Materials:

Multiple player and single player games. Assistive tools for persons with special needs to aid in game play are also kept in this collection.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

Appendix F: Juvenile Literature

Description:

Purpose:

Primarily, to provide area educators (UNK education students and faculty, teachers in area schools, parents and other members of the general public) access to juvenile literature (e.g., picture books, big books, chapter books, young adult novels).

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

At one time, A. O. Thomas Hall was a laboratory school. The juvenile literature collection was housed there. When it closed as a school the materials were transferred to the library. Presumably, this is the point when the "+" symbol was added to the call number (it precedes the call number) for this collection.

In 1984, the collection was designated the Nebraska Archive of Children's Books. The purpose of the collection was to assist the Nebraska Library Commission in providing continuing access to:

  • Examples of significant juvenile books which reflect the customs, social values and history of the times in which they were written.
  • Retrospective works for young people dealing specifically with Nebraska life and history.
  • Books out of print for which there is diminished local demand but which may be of continuing interest to the researcher or scholar.

 

Per Janet Stoeger Wilke, Library Dean and former Curriculum Librarian via personal communication, the archive function has not been maintained. Originally, public and school libraries used to send their withdrawn titles so that the archive could be checked to see if the title was already in the collection. This has somewhat fallen to the wayside as personnel has changed in the state.

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains approximately 25,000 titles in the Juvenile Literature collection.

State, Regional, and National Importance:

The collection serves as a regional resource, as well as supplementing the educational resources available to the University of Nebraska at Kearney, College of Education.

Treatment of Subject:

Literature written for children and young adult readers is the primary focus of the collection. The collection focuses on award winning titles, works supporting typical K-12 discipline areas (such as math and social sciences) and titles of particular interest to Nebraska and the Plains region. Attention is paid to adding titles with potential controversial content to aid research, as well as making the items available to regional patrons who might not otherwise have access to the resources. The collection is both contemporary and historical, striving to provide titles needed for the study of juvenile literature as a discipline.

Types of Material:

Generally books are collected. Occasionally, materials in other media may be included with the monograph.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

Appendix F: Juvenile Magazines

Description:

Purpose:

Primarily, to provide UNK education students and faculty access to juvenile magazines.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

The library currently subscribes to 23 juvenile magazines. The backfile for the collection includes 28 titles.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Language

English is the primary language of the collection.

Chronological:

The emphasis is on the 20th century and early 21st century.

Geographical:

The primary focus is on the United States.

Treatment of Subject:

Magazines written for children and young adult readers is the primary focus of the collection.

Place of Publication:

Magazines are published in the United States.

Appendix F: Kits

Description:

Purpose:

To provide area educators (UNK education students and faculty, other UNK students, faculty and staff, teachers in area schools, parents and other members of the general public) access to kits (defined as any item which contains two or more categories of material, no one of which is identifiable as the predominant constituen t of the item).

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

Approximately 150 kits.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Treatment of Subject:

Kits appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. The following subject areas are represented: art, health, life sciences, literature, mathematics, physical sciences, reading, social sciences, United States History, and life skills.

Types of Materials:

Any item which contains two or more categories of material, no one of which is identifiable as the predominant constituent of the item is placed in the Kit collection.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

Appendix F: Manipulatives

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK education students and faculty, and other UNK students and faculty access to manipulative objects related to math and science.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains approximately 40 sets of manipulatives.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Acquisition:

Items are purchased for the collection at faculty member request.

Removal:

Generally items in these collections are not removed unless the set becomes unusable for some reason.

Treatment of Subject:

The library collects math and science resources.

Types of Materials:

Math manipulatives include rods, base blocks, tangrams, linking cubes, counters, pattern blocks, geoboards, clocks, coins, bills, algebra tiles and more.

Science manipulatives include magnets, tuning rods, magnifying lenses, thermometers, marbles, solids, shells, and more.

Appendix F: Models

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty, students, and staff with access to models related to specific study needs.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

The library has two items in the model collection.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Acquisition:

Items are purchased for this collection based on requests from faculty members. The Models Collection is not an actively collected area.

Removal:

Models do not become obsolete as they represent an actual item, therefore, the model collection is not weeded though items may be transferred to other collections to facilitate ease in locating.

Treatment of Subject:

Models of the human brain.

Appendix F: Puppets

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty and students with access to puppets for use in instruction.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Established in 2011, materials from kits, realia and textbook series were moved to create the collection.

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains approximately 20 puppets.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Acquisition:

Generally, puppets are purchased in response to faculty member requests. Some enter the collection as gifts received from textbook publishers (in this case, the puppet was generally a part of the supplemental materials for the textbook series). Others are acquired in kits of books and puppets; when a kit is divided (books added to the Juvenile Literature or Teaching Resources collections), the puppet is moved to this collection.

Removal:

Puppets are rarely withdrawn. Damage is the primary reason for withdrawal.

Chronological:

Some puppets appear to be fifty years old. The majority are more recently manufactured.

Treatment of Subject:

Puppets appropriate for pre-K and elementary education are the major focus of the collection.

Types of Materials:

Mainly puppets representing animals.

Appendix F: Relia

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty, students, and staff with access to real objects related to specific study needs.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains eight items.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Library Lower Level.

Acquisition:

Items are purchased for this collection based on requests from faculty members. Realia is not an actively collected area.

Removal:

Realia do not become obsolete as they represent an actual item, therefore, the realia collection is not weeded.

Types of Materials:

The collection includes a color star, hardwood samples, an audiometer, and two sets of percussion instruments.

Appendix F: Study Prints

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty and students with access to large format images related to specific study needs.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Much of the collection was not cataloged when the library adopted its present OPAC. In 2011, the collection was weeded and the remaining items cataloged into the OPAC.

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains 50 study prints.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Acquisition:

Items are purchased for this collection based on requests from faculty members. The only exception to this is the purchase of Jackdaws' collections to enhance social studies curriculum (reproductions of primary source materials and lesson plans).

Removal:

Study prints only become obsolete when the data is no longer accurate or the items become worn. As noted above, the collection was weeded in 2011 to remove such items. Much of the collection was previously uncataloged (prior to 2011 when the entire remaining collection was cataloged), so use statistics don't exist.

Language:

English is the primary language of the collection.

Chronological:

Some materials date to the 1960's, although most are newer.

Geographical:

The primary focus of the collection is on the United States.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

 

Appendix F: Tests

Description:

Purpose:

To provide UNK faculty and students with access to professional testing instruments (usually the tests are normed). Tests are restricted in use. Materials are not for consumption (i.e., forms cannot be used or photocopied). Students are allowed to borrow tests from this collection only if a faculty member whose instructional expertise relates to the subject area assigns this right to them.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains approximately 40 tests.

Appendix F: Textbooks

Description:

Purpose:

To provide area educators (UNK education students and faculty, other UNK students, faculty and staff, teachers in area schools, parents and other members of the general public) access to recent pre-K through 12th grade textbook series.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

Initiated by Janet Stoeger-Wilke, Curriculum Librarian, in collaboration with three area Education Service Units and the College of Education, the collection was funded through a grant, the collection was known as the Regional Instructional Materials Review Collection (RIMRC).

RIMRC met two information needs. Firstly, RIMRC provided a centralized location to which publishers could send sample textbook sets gratis for wide access to area schools. It was also a centralized location to which school faculty and curriculum decision makers would visit to compare and contrast the latest textbook series from across the spectrum of publishers. Secondly, it provided an instruction resource for the College of Education in the preparation of future educators, many of whom would teach from similar textbook series in their training and once employed. When newer materials arrived that replaced the textbook series in RIMRC, the older materials were relocated to a different textbook collection, since they were likely still used in some school districts.

In 2011, it was determined that a variety of factors, from school consolidation, which eliminated many of the small schools RIMRC was set up to aid, to difficulty in obtaining full series from publishers, and limited use by area school districts, resulted in the decision to consolidate the collections. Both RIMRC and the older textbook collection were weeded extensively (approximately 22,000 items were either withdrawn or transferred to other collections). Generally the guideline for removing textbooks was based on publication date (items older than ten years were likely removed). In addition, it was determined that the Teacher Edition and Student Edition of the series would generally meet the needs of the collection's primary user group (the College of Education).

The textbooks were not included in the OPAC for most of the life of the two collections. In 2009, an ambitious plan to catalog the entire collection foundered for a number of reasons. A small portion of the collection was cataloged over the course of two years. The 2011 weeding of the collections lowered the number of items to be cataloged to a manageable number (approximately 1000). This was completed in the summer of 2011.

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection contains approximately 2,500 items.

State, Regional, and National Importance:

The collection serves primarily as an instruction resource for the University of Nebraska, College of Education. Additionally, it continues to be advertised as a resource available to area teachers and community members.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Treatment of Subject:

Textbooks appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection. The following subject areas are represented: art, business, computer science, consumer education, drama, economics, English language, English as a second language, foreign languages, geography, health, information literacy, literature, mathematics, music, Nebraska history, physical sciences, reading, social sciences, United States History, industrial arts, life sciences, life skills, psychology, sociology, world history, and writing.

Types of Materials:

Mainly the teacher and student edition of the textbooks.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

State, Regional, and National Importance:

The collection serves as a resource to UNK faculty and students.

Location of Materials:

Lower Level of the library, in the Curriculum Meeting Room. The tests are locked in cabinets requiring librarian or circulation staff assistance and validation of credentials of the potential borrower.

Acquisition:

Purchases are made in response to requests from UNK faculty members. No deliberate effort is made to collect in this area. Some items are received as gifts (an example of this is testing kits given by SuperDuper Publications).

Removal:

Since standardized tests have a limited shelf life due to renorming and other modifications that result in new versions of the tests, only the most current version of the test is kept (though it may not be the current version available on the market).

Materials that are withdrawn from the collection are destroyed.

Language:

English is the primary language of the collection. The most common other language is Spanish.

Chronological:

The collection includes tests from the 1950's to the present.

Treatment of Subject:

Tests appropriate for speech and language ability assessments are the primary focus of the collection.

Place of Publication:

Most materials in the collection are published in the United States.

Appendix F: Historical Textbooks

Description:

Purpose:

To provide area educators (UNK education students and faculty, other UNK students, faculty and staff, teachers in area schools, parents and other members of the general public) access to historical pre-K through 12th grade textbook series.

Adminstrator of the Collection:

The Curriculum Librarian, Calvin T. Ryan Library, Lower Level, (308) 865-8276

History of the Collection:

The Historic Textbook collection was established by Janet Stoeger-Wilke while Curriculum Librarian.

The historical textbooks have not been included in the OPAC. Plans are underway to catalog them based on subject in the Library of Congress classification scheme.

Estimate of Holdings:

The collection is estimated to contain approximately 75 items.

Location of Materials:

Calvin T. Ryan Library Lower Level.

Treatment of Subject:

Textbooks appropriate for elementary and secondary education are the major focus of the collection.

Types of Materials:

Mainly the Teacher and Student editions of textbooks are collected.

Place of Publication:

Most materials are published in the United States.

Appendix G: Selection Criteria for Purchased Electronic Resources

Faculty of the Calvin T. Ryan Library will consider the following criteria when evaluating the purchase, subscription, and subsequent renewal of electronic resources. The library has developed a process for requesting trials and subscriptions to electronic resources. Please contact your liaison for assistance.

 

Mission

  • What educational level is served (i.e. graduate, undergraduate, etc.)?
  • Which courses in UNK's curriculum might utilize this resource?
  • How many people might use this resource, and how often?
  • Is this resource intended to replace a print item?
  • Does this resource meet a critical information need among distance-education students?
  • Will this resource benefit the accreditation process for a particular department or program?
  • Is the library committing to subscribing to this resource in perpetuity? What happens if it's cancelled?

Cost

  • What is its cost?
  • Is it a one-time purchase or annual subscription?
  • If purchased, does any annual hosting or access fees apply? If purchased, are there additional costs for future content updates?
  • How is the cost figured: by FTE, flat rate, type of institution, number of simultaneous users?
  • Does this resource overlap other titles (online or print) which might be cancelled to provide cost savings?
  • Is the cost reasonable compared to competing online products or editions in fixed formats?
  • What is the likelihood and size of future price increases, if any?
  • Is there a stated cap on future price increases?
  • Will the publisher offer a multi-year contract with discount?
  • Is consortium pricing available?
  • Could invoicing be processed through EBSCO, Nebraska Library Commission, or some other third-party?
  • Are there potential hidden costs in supporting this product? (e.g. additional hardware, staff time, etc.)

Licensing

  • Is off-campus access permitted to authenticated users?
  • Are "walk in" users permitted to use this resource within the library?
  • May the contents of this resource be used to fill interlibrary loan requests?
    • May content be sent electronically or by hard copy only?
  • How many simultaneous users are permitted?
  • May users print, download or reuse content for scholarly purposes?
  • May contents of this resource be duplicated for coursepacks without permission?
  • May contents of this resource be duplicated and placed on reserve?
    • In print or electronic, or both?
  • May contents of this resource be duplicated and loaded into a Blackboard course without permission?
  • Will we own the data in perpetuity (i.e. "perpetual access") even if the subscription is cancelled in the future?
  • How is perpetual access granted (i.e. secure hosting by the vendor for a fee, or secure hosting by UNK)?
  • Is the data archived in Portico or LOCKSS?
  • May the license's jurisdiction be changed to Nebraska?
  • What advanced notice is required, if any, before the renewal date to terminate the subscription and/or license?
  • Does the licensor hold UNK (the licensee) harmless, or indemnify UNK for errors or copyright infringement?
  • Do consortial agreements affect the licensure, and if so, how?

Administration, Statistics, and Support

  • Does this resource provide an administrative module for interface and configuration changes?
  • Does the interface allow for "branding" with customized images, icons, text and hyperlinks of our choosing?
  • What statistics can be generated or provided regarding the use of this resource?
  • Do the usage statistics conform to the COUNTER and SUSHI standards? If neither, how meaningful are the statistics?
  • What quality of service and support does the vendor/publisher provide? How easy is it to receive assistance?
  • What is the publisher's reputation for stability and reliability?

Technical

  • Does this resource utilize IP authentication, username/password, or both?
  • Does this resource require use of an HTTPS secure connection?
  • What peripherals or browser plug-ins does this resource require, if any?
  • What hardware requirements does this resource have, if any?
  • What level of Internet connectivity does this resource require?
  • Does this resource allow article-level linking via OpenURL as a source and a target?
  • Are MARC records of the contents available for download from OCLC or the vendor?
  • Will any of the contents need to be stored and securely distributed from UNK servers?
  • If this resource is software-based, how easy is it to install and maintain?

Usability

  • How easy is it to use? Is it significantly more challenging to navigate than a print counterpart (if one exists)?
  • Does this resource require users to create a personalized account?
  • Are search forms and results screens easy to understand and navigate?
  • Does it have both novice and expert search modes?
  • Are search results returned in a reasonable timeframe?
  • How are results sorted? Can users select a different sorting option?
  • Can users review and combine searches from a session history?
  • Are links to full-text articles or an OpenURL resolver easy to locate?
  • Are persistent URLs to journal titles or articles easy to locate?
  • How easy is it to print, save, and e-mail selected citations or articles?
  • Can search results be exported to various bibliographic management tools?
  • Is there good documentation - either via help pages or online tutorials?
  • Is the interface compatible with adaptive technology tools to support users with disabilities?
  • Does the interface support languages other than English?
  • Does the interface support mobile devices?

Content

  • What is the scope of this resource (i.e. general or subject-specific)?
  • Is the resource authoritative?
  • How frequently is this resource updated?
  • Are there any embargoes on content? If so, how long is the embargo?
  • Is there a quality thesaurus and/or subject index?
  • What titles are indexed by this resource?
  • Are abstracts available?
  • Is full-text provided?
    • Which titles are available in full-text? How does this overlap with other resources in online or fixed formats?
    • How far back is full text available (i.e. coverage dates)?
    • What file formats are used to supply full text (e.g. PDF, HTML, both, other)?
  • Does this resource fill recognized gaps in the collection?
  • Could this resource be considered a primary source?
  • Is there any commercial content or advertising?
  • Can the same or similar data be reliably and accurately retrieved on the open Web?

Reviews

  • Has the product been reviewed in professional or scholarly literature (e.g. Choice, Reference Reviews, The Charleston Advisor, The Scout Report)?
  • Have UNK library faculty and staff examined this resource? What is their collective assessment?
  • Have other UNK faculty recommended or examined this resource? What is their collective assessment?

*Appendix G adapted from the "Purchased Electronic Resources Selection/Deselection Guidelines," approved by the CTRL Professionals Group as a working guide on April 1, 2003.

Appendix H: Selection Criteria for Freely Accessible Web Resources

The primary consideration for selecting freely accessible websites is the appropriateness of the resource for the academic curricula of the university.

Departmental faculty and library faculty may recommend freely accessible web resources for inclusion in the library catalog, if the recommended website meets these selection criteria.

 

  • Content of the website should be authoritative in the subject area, as would be expected of books, reference resources, etc.
  • Content should be attributable to an author, editor, editorial board, or publisher with credibility in the subject area presented. Anonymous or non-attributable information should not be considered.
  • The website should reflect accurate and updated content appropriate to the subject area.
  • The primary language of search interfaces (and help screens, navigational information) should be English.
  • The website should reflect some stability in availability (i.e. server uptime, persistency of URLs).
  • Access to bibliographic information should be free, without advertisements, pop-ups, or registration requirements that may result in unsolicited marketing contacts.
  • Information should be accessible with commonly available software and equipment, as supported by the University's Information Technology Services.

 

Several sources are available for consultation in locating reviews of websites that would typically meet these criteria: Choice, Reference Reviews, The Charleston Advisor and The Scout Report.

Freely accessible websites meeting the above criteria will be cataloged under these provisos:

  • Cataloging of new library materials, whether in print or electronic formats, will always take priority over cataloging free websites.
  • Free websites with MARC records available for download from OCLC will be given priority over free websites requiring original cataloging. An LC call number and subject headings are essential for these electronic resources to be searchable and included in RSS feeds.

 

In lieu of MARC cataloging, freely accessible websites may be added to ERM, at the decision of a majority of library faculty, based upon the perceived value and usage of that free website in relation to the curricula of the university, and not just to a single course.

Appendix I: Federal Government Documents Collection Development Policy *

Building a depository collection begins with a well written collection development policy, regularly reviewed and updated as appropriate. It should include the following to maximize your service to the community:

  • A community analysis of the Federal Government information needs of your library's users to include subjects, formats, languages, special products, and age-appropriate materials.
  • Identification of the information needs of the congressional district, state, region, or local area, and collect only the items best suited to meet those needs.
  • Strategies for meeting the Federal Government information needs of the primary library patron community and, if different, the general public. This may include cooperative collection development efforts with neighboring depository libraries.
  • Procedures for providing documents requested by users but not selected by your library; this may mean inter-depository coordination of selections, cooperative collection development, and interlibrary loan to provide access in your local area to seldom used items.
  • Intensity levels and subject strengths of your existing collection which you may want to continue and enhance, or which you may want to transfer to another depository to strengthen their collection.
  • Practical guidelines for format selection decisions based upon your usersi' needs.

 

Role & Mission Statement

The Calvin T. Ryan Library supports the mission of the University of Nebraska at Kearney through the provision of information resources and delivery of technology needed to support the teaching, research and scholarship of the UNK campus community, off campus education, and distance learning programs.

In fulfilling this mission, the Library acquires and manages informational resources and also cooperates with other libraries, especially those within the University of Nebraska system, to provide access to resources and services not physically available at UNK.

In partnership with teaching faculty, the Library strives to develop in UNK students an increased awareness of available resources and skills necessary to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate and utilize it effectively.

Because of the location and the nature of the resources, the Calvin T. Ryan Library also serves as an informational focal point for central Nebraska.

Purpose

The purpose of Calvin T. Ryan Library's government documents collections, which include federal and Nebraska state government documents, is to serve the needs of the University of Nebraska at Kearney's (UNK) undergraduate and graduate curriculum, its students, faculty, administrators, and staff, as articulated in the mission statement, above.

In accordance with requirements defined in the Federal Depository Library Handbook, Chapter 5, information needs of the residents of the Third Congressional District of Nebraska must also be considered.

Calvin T. Ryan Library was designated a federal depository in 1962 and is one of two federal government document depository libraries in the Third Congressional District of Nebraska. The depository library program is coordinated by the U. S. Government Printing Office (GPO). The Library was designated a depository for Nebraska state documents in 1978.

Calvin T. Ryan Library and the other smaller federal depository 300 miles west of Kearney are responsible for providing service to a geographical area covering approximately two-thirds of the state of Nebraska, comprising the Third Congressional District: 62,879 square miles (Nebraska: 76,877 square miles). The nearest depository to the east is 130 miles away in Lincoln and all other federal depositories in Nebraska are east of Lincoln. There are no depositories in Nebraska to the north or south of Keaarney. Collection development parameters for C. T. Ryan Library, therefore, are different than would be the case if another federal government documents depository was nearby.

This collection development policy will be revised to conform to the overall Library collection development policy if such a policy is developed in the future.

The Library is committed to providing free and unimpeded public access to government documents, both for its primary users and for citizens of the state of Nebraska. The Library is accessible to persons with disabilities, as are the government documents collections which are shelved in open stacks on the Library's second floor. A ramp and elevators provide access into the library and to the second floor. All government documents with the exception of selected reference titles circulate out of the library, for the same period of time as materials from the general collection. As an educational institution funded by the state of Nebraska, any citizen may check materials out of the Library with no cost.

The depository library logo is posted at the Library's outside entrance and in several locations in the Government Documents Department.

The Library currently selects 55% of the item numbers available to depository libraries. Selection is based on current and potential information needs of faculty and students, faculty research, information requested by community users, actual use of similar materials, and potential for use. As electronic access to government information continues to expand, the Documents Librarian will keep abreast of developments. The Library will provide access to electronic formats to the best of its ability. (See "Formats", "Access", and "Electronic Access" sections.) The Library has no plans to significantly increase the percentage of item numbers it selects. The addition of item numbers for electronic-only publications has resulted in a slight increase in the percent of item numbers selected by the Library over the last eight years (54%, 2001 to 55.2% in 2009).

As a Nebraska state documents depository, the Library received all documents sent under this program. There was no selectivity and documents were sent on microfiche only. Distribution of depository state documents on microfiche ceased in 2005. The Documents Department also receives selected paper Nebraska documents that it orders on a title-by-title basis or receives direct from various state agencies. Nebraska government agencies are increasing distribution of their publications in electronic formats.

Subject Areas and Collection Arrangement

The Library selects all of the titles listed in the "Basic Collection" recommended by the Government Printing Office, Federal Depository Library Handbook, Chapter 5. All are cataloged and linked if online. (List updated by GPO, 19 March 2009; titles checked against Library holdings June, 2009.)

It will strongly consider all items listed in the Suggested Core Collection by Library Type section of the Federal Depository Library Handbook, Appendix A (2008). A review done in October, 2000 of item numbers in this 47-page appendix showed the Library selecting 93% of all titles recommended for academic depository libraries. The Library selects 89% of the total item numbers recommended for all three types of libraries on the list: small/medium public libraries, academic, and law libraries. (Some item numbers on the lists are now inactive and no longer available for depository selection.)

In addition to a core collection, the Library will also determine which additional item numbers are needed to support the University's undergraduate and graduate degree programs and needs of the public. The University of Nebraska at Kearney Undergraduate Catalog and the University of Nebraska at Kearney Graduate Catalog (both at this link) lists of departments and majors offered are used as a guide to the curriculum.

Subject/area strengths of the collection include census materials, Congressional publications, education, government, social sciences, health and human services, and criminal justice. These areas of concentration reflect, in part, programs offered by the University and needs of the surrounding geographical area.

Basic core materials are selected including reference tools, government periodicals, statistical series, Congressional publications, maps, directories, bibliographies, annual reports, general publications, yearbooks, handbooks, manuals, and guides and other significant monographs and series from all federal agencies.

The Library does not select publications of a highly technical nature, posters, most picture sets, forms, press releases, separates when the main item is selected, environmental impact statements, agency-issued laws and regulations, policy/procedure/training manuals meant for in-house use by government agencies, military manuals and technical reports, and other types of material not deemed necessary to support user needs.

In general, selection decisions should favor inclusion rather than exclusion because there is no other depository in the area. Providing users with information locally is preferred over referring them to the nearest federal depository library (130 miles away in Lincoln). The federal government's transition to electronic publishing further broadens the information base available while simultaneously making it more difficult for the Library to provide service to users who may never enter its front door. The Library's web pages, mentioned below, have a link for users to request assistance.

Within budget parameters, the Library will purchase appropriate paper and online indexes and equipment to provide access to the items it selects.

The federal government documents collection is shelved in Superintendent of Documents (SuDoc) call number order in two collections: documents reference collection and main documents collection. The Nebraska documents collection constitutes the third portion of the collections.

A selective housing agreement for maps has been in force with the Geography Department, University of Nebraska at Kearney, since 1985. Maps sent to this joint housing site are checked in, to the piece level, in the Library's shelf list. All are stamped to indicate ownership, date, and depository status.

The Geography Department selects map series from the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (formerly Defense Mapping Agency) and the United States Geological Survey. Selection is based on needs of faculty and students. The collection is open for use and check out by students and faculty from all academic departments, as well as the public. When the joint housing agreement was initiated, the goal was to have more specialized maps housed in the Geography Department and to have coverage of Nebraska, the United States and the world at different scales housed in the Library. This goal continues to guide development of the collection. Maps in the Geography Department are kept in map cases with access provided by marked index maps. As with other government publications, fewer paper maps are currently being received as agencies transition to providing them online.

A copy of the joint housing agreement, signed by the Director of Libraries and Chair of the Geography Department, was sent to the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., and to the regional (Love Library, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska) when the agreement was initiated.

The joint housing site is consulted during the annual item number update cycle to determine if it wishes to add to its selections. In addition, it has been made aware that item numbers may be dropped at any time during the year.

A joint housing agreement with Kearney Public Library and Information Center was in effect from 1986 through 1997 when it was terminated by mutual agreement.

Formats

Format will not be a primary consideration in selection of item numbers. Content and potential for use will be. The Library can provide access to information in any format currently available, including microform and electronic. Paper is the preferred format for core collection titles and general interest material, if a choice is available.

The Library has paper-to-paper copiers, microform readers, reader/printers, and scanners. The Government Documents Department has microform readers and portable microfiche readers that may be checked out of the Library. Computers with open Internet access are available in the government documents area and elsewhere in the Library. A printer connected to the Library's networked system is located in the Government Documents Department.

The Government Printing Office's "New Electronic Titles" lists, published monthly, are the primary selection tool for adding electronic-only titles to the Library's catalog. All new tangible government documents received since 2004 are cataloged in the Library's online system and have links if available. Selected older titles are also cataloged and some are linked.

Tangible electronic formats are selected based on information content and anticipated use. In some cases, items formerly published in paper are available only on compact disc; if the paper item was selected, the compact disc one will be also. In general, all tangible electronic format publications will be selected. Item numbers are less than specific (commonly, simply "electronic products" from an agency) so it is difficult to determine in advance whether products will be useful or not. Item numbers can be dropped at any point if it becomes apparent that materials are not suitable for addition to the collection. Compact discs with data only (no software) will be selected if deemed suitable to support specific academic programs and research. Discs that contain information more suitable for agency in-house use are not selected.

The Department's web page provides links to sites that index federal agency electronic information by title and by subject. Bibliographies and class handouts are also used to disseminate information about electronic government information.

Selection Tools, Non-Depository Items, Retrospective Sources

Selection Tools

The Government Printing Office's lists of New Electronic Titles, published monthly, are the primary selection tool for adding electronic-only titles to the Library's catalog. Emphasis is now being placed on electronic formats over tangible ones. Electronic availability better serves distance students and is becoming preferred by on-campus students. The general public also benefits when titles are linked in the Library's catalog.

Another selection tool used for collection development is the current issue of the List of Classes of United States Government Publications Available for Selection by Depository Libraries. A copy marked with selections served as the foundation for collection development decisions. Information from the U. S. Government Manual about an agency's mission is used as an indication of possible subject areas in which the agency may publish.

In addition, all shipping lists are reviewed for potential new item numbers to add and to gain an overview of receipts under currently selected item numbers. A list is compiled throughout the year of item numbers to consider adding or dropping.

Item numbers created to separate out a title or series from an existing item are reviewed with the same scrutiny as item numbers that are new to the system. Item numbers for "general electronic publications" will generally be selected unless it is obvious that they do not suit the Library's needs. The item numbers can be dropped at any time if the titles received are unsuitable.

The lists of core materials and maps (see 'Subject Areas...' section, above) in the Depository Library Handbook and recommendations from the suggested core collection for small academic libraries were reviewed in 2000. (Library selects 93% of listed items.)

Non-depository sources with collection development information include GOVDOC-L (an electronic discussion list for persons interested in government documents), DttP, Documents to the People, and reviews and "best" document lists in Library Journal and other professional journals. Books such as Joe Morehead's Introduction to United States Government Information Sources and Boyd and Rips United States Government Publications also provide overviews of current and historical publications and series. In addition, news broadcasts and newspapers may indicate subjects of potential high interest to the local area. Input is welcomed from library faculty and library users as well.

Non-depository/Not Selected Items

With the availability of electronic-only publications, the Library is able to selectively catalog titles from item numbers it does not se lect.

The Government Documents Librarian also uses the sources listed above to identify non-depository/not selected tangible titles for acquisition. With availability of titles on the Internet, very few titles are ordered now because many are on-line and/or are no longer available in a tangible format.

Retrospective Sources

The Library does not emphasize adding retrospective materials, primarily because of lack of space and demand. (See below for Library indexes to retrospective titles.) The institution's emphasis on scholarly teaching rather than research also influences this decision. However, efforts are made to replace materials that have been lost or damaged by reviewing discard lists on GOVDOC-L. Gaps in serial holdings are noted and searched also.

The regional library in Lincoln and interlibrary loan are used for retrospective materials not held in the collection. Users needing to do extensive research using retrospective materials are referred to the regional.

Resource Sharing

There is no other depository library in the immediate geographical area. The primary source for obtaining government information not available in Calvin T. Ryan Library is the regional: Love Library, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. The library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha is also a large federal government documents depository library.

Titles not held by the Library are requested through its Interlibrary Loan Office. The University and state college systems' on-line catalogs are accessible via C. T. Ryan Library's on-line system.

Standard government document reference sources and agency web sites can be searched for online publications. Agency sites also provide addresses and telephone numbers to pursue. GOVDOC-L is used for information and assistance with difficult reference questions. The federal documents librarian at Love Library and Nebraska Library Commission documents staff in Lincoln can also be used for reference assistance.

The Engineering Library at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln is a U. S. Patent and Trademark Depository Library. Users are referred there and to the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office's site for patent information. The collection contains basic patent and trademark publications.

As detailed above, a joint housing agreement is in place with the Geography Department on campus.

The Nebraska Library Commission moderates an on-line discussion group for Nebraska government document personnel. The Government Documents Librarian belongs to this discussion group.

(A joint housing agreement with Kearney Public Library and Information Center was in effect from 1986 through 1997 when it was terminated by mutual agreement.)

Collective Evaluation

Collection evaluation is done as part of the annual item number review in May-June and on an ongoing basis. Throughout the year a list of item numbers to consider for selection is compiled when shipping lists are reviewed. A list is also compiled of possible items to deselect. Since it is difficult to ascertain from the List of Classes whether or not a series is needed, searches by item number are done on Marcive WebDOCS to review past publishing activity and subjects. This helps determine, in a general way, the number of titles being sent under a specific item number.

As mentioned above, standard and core lists defined in the Federal Depository Library Handbook have been checked against selections. All core list titles are also linked in the on-line catalog.

Information about user needs is also gathered from questions asked in the Department. Statistics are kept of reference, quick, and general information questions answered in the Government Documents Department. Counts are made of government documents used in the department and elsewhere in the Library. Circulation statistics indicate use of the collection. The Library's on-line system has an option that allows users to send comments to the Library Dean. An option to make comments directly to the Government Printing Office has been added to the Department's web pages.

Weeding & Maintenance

Weeding of the collection is done on an ongoing basis and as space limitations dictate. On a regular basis, superseded titles in both tangible and electronic formats are withdrawn from the collection. Weeding of the entire collection (except the Y'4's) was completed in June, 2009. Discard procedures established by the regional are followed. For current instructions see: Discarding Procedures for Federal Selective Depository Libraries in Nebraska [no date; viewed 6/09]. These procedures state, in part:

  • all materials must be retained for five years, in keeping with GPO guidelines.
  • except for large runs of fiche sets, selective depository libraries may discard fiche without offering on a discard list.
  • floppy disks do not need to be listed

 

The following must be listed on a discard list and approval granted by the regional to discard:

  • paper materials received prior to 1970
  • documents about Nebraska or the surrounding geographical area
  • titles from the depository library core collection list
  • hard cover documents
  • depository CD-ROM products and their support materials
  • large runs of serials or periodicals
  • depository material deemed "significant" and of possible interest to other selective depository libraries in Nebraska

 

Love Library reviews discard lists from selective depository libraries, makes its selections, e-mails lists to all selective depository libraries in Nebraska, and sets a deadline for claiming. After the deadline, the Government Documents Dept. may forward the list to the national "Needs and Offers List" if desired. The Government Documents Department uses the Superseded List as an important part of its weeding effort. Notes are maintained in the bibliographic record for titles in which only the most recent edition is kept. Discretion is used in following the List, however. The newest and next to newest editions of important titles are often retained, for example. The 2002 edition of the List and its 2008 update formed the basis for the 2009 weeding project mentioned above.

Other considerations that may be used in discarding/weeding are:

  • need for the information contained in the document
  • currency of the information
  • age
  • apparent and expected use
  • physical condition of the document
  • availability of a more current equivalent on the Internet

 

The only tangible government document title routinely replaced by another format is the Federal Register which the Library purchases on microfilm. This practice is no longer followed because of online permanent availability of the full-text of the Federal Register.

Access

Please see 'Access Policy for Federal Depository Library Materials: Government Documents Collections, Calvin T. Ryan Library' above. At the end of FY 07-08 the collection contained 275,319 federal paper items and fiche titles, 17,179 Nebraska documents, 216,371 microfiche pieces, 2,122 compact discs, 181 DVD's, and 3,840 maps. Also see also 'Electronic Access' section, below.

Cataloging

The Library's Cataloging Department processes all new tangible government documents. New titles received in tangible format are cataloged or checked-in in the Library's on-line catalog. If available, links are added to the bibliographic records. Electronic-only titles selected from GPO's monthly "New Electronic Titles" lists are sent to Cataloging to be added to the online catalog.

Assistance for Users

The Department is headed by an MLS-degreed librarian with over thirty years’ experience in government documents who works full-time in the department (except for assigned day, evening, and weekend hours on the main reference desk). The librarian is an associate professor and tenured. Other faculty librarians are stationed at the reference desk and provide assistance for government documents when the Documents Librarian is not available.

Commercial Indexes

Major commercial indexes held by the Library that include government documents are listed below. All are located in, or are accessible on computers located in, the Government Documents Department and elsewhere in the Library. Students, faculty, and staff may use the on-line resources from off-campus. Public access from off-campus to commercial electronic resources is restricted by vendor licensing agreements. The public is welcome to come to the Library, however, and use any of the on-line indexes/databases.Several major government-produced on-line indexes available to the public are linked from the Library's index pages including PubMed, STAT-USA and USA Trade Online (user limits apply), Medline Plus, NCJRS Abstracts Database, and the PILOTS Database.

 

Online indexes

The following databases can be found from the 'Articles & Databases' page.

  • LexisNexis Academic
  • LexisNexis Congressional
  • LexisNexis Government Periodicals Index
  • Marcive WebDOCS
  • LexisNexis Statistical

 

Paper Indexes

The following indexes are located in the government area:

  • American Statistics Index (ASI). (1973 - 2001)
  • Congressional Information Service Index (CIS). (1965 - 1999)
  • Cumulative Subject Index to the Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications, 1900 - 1971. (Buchanan)
  • Cumulative Title Index to United States Public Documents, 1789 - 1976.
  • Guide to U. S. Government Publications. (Andriot)
  • Index to U. S. Government Periodicals. 1970 - 1987.
  • Shepard's Acts and Cases by Popular Names: Federal and State. (current subscription)
  • U. S. Serial Set Index. (American State Papers through the 57th Congress and 86th Congress - 91st Congress).
  • United States Treaty Index, 1776 -. (Hein's)

 

Government Produced Indexes

 

  • Checklist of United States Public Documents, 1789 - 1909, Vol. 1. GPO, 1911.
  • Catalog of the Public Documents of the Congress and All Departments of the Government of the United States, 1893 - 1940. GPO, 1893 - 1940.
  • Tables of and Annotated Index to the Congressional Series of United States Public Documents. GPO, 1902.
  • A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, September 5, 1774 - March 4, 1881. Vol. 1 - 2. Ben Perley Poore. GPO, 1885.
  • Comprehensive Index to the Publications of the United States Government, 1881 - 1893. Vol. 1 - 2. John G. Ames. GPO, 1905.
  • Monthly Catalog of U. S. Government Publications. 1895 - 1960 (microfiche), 1941 - 1992 (bound), 1993 - 1995 (microfiche), 1996 - 1999 (compact disc), 2000 - 2004 (paper), and online, 1976 - .

 

The Department has a set of pathfinders for various resources ( linked below if online). Other guides have been written for federal legal research on LexisNexis Academic (a basic research guide and an advanced search tips guide), Nebraska legal research on LexisNexis Academic, LexisNexis Congressional, LexisNexis Government Periodicals Index, LexisNexis Statistical, the Nebraska Statutes, Nebraska documents, Nebraska legislative histories, Nebraska laws and legislation, and how to get started in government documents.

Guides, also prepared by the Government Documents Librarian, are available for American Statistics Index, Congressional Information Service Index, Index to U. S. Government Periodicals, and the Monthly Catalog of U. S. Government Publications. Paper copies of these guides are located by each index and on a rack by the Department's computers.

The Library does not have a series of subject-oriented pathfinders at present. See below for bibliographies done by the Government Documents Librarian.

Promotion

The Government Documents Department strongly subscribes to promotion of the government documents collection and the Library's depository status. A number of techniques are used to inform users and the public of the availability of documents.

Primary among them is to have all new tangible government documents included in the Library's on-line catalog where they may be located just like any other material held by the Library.

The depository library logo is at the front entrance to the library. Hardboard logos are displayed in the government documents area and depository logo decals are on all government document book trucks.

Government documents are included in Library bibliographic instruction sessions as appropriate.

Certificates from depository library inspections, including a Certificate of Merit, and the certificate designating the Library a Nebraska Documents Depository are framed and displayed in the documents index table/computer area.

The major publicity effort of the Department, the "New Government Documents" list, was discontinued January, 2006 at the request of the then-Library Dean. A number of bibliographies of government documents and guides to resources and indexes that had been prepared were not duplicated when the library transitioned to a new web site. Afterwards, UNK transitioned to a new content management system and those bibliographies are no longer available.

Bibliographic Instruction & Outreach

The Government Documents Librarian teaches a number of bibliographic instruction classes each semester. Classes are from assigned academic liaison departments and any others that request bibliographic instruction in government documents. An outline/bibliography is prepared for each class. During fiscal year 2007 - 2008, a total of 13 courses from five academic departments received bibliographic instruction from the government documents librarian. A total of 350 students and faculty were included. All presentations/handouts included coverage of government document resources.

In 2002, the Documents Librarian gave a presentation about government information on the Internet at a Nebraska Meridian Library System workshop for public and school librarians/media specialists. Handouts for finding government information at agency web sites, using a web index and a search engine were used. Sources of federal, state, and international agency information were given to participants. Updated federal and Nebraska agency web site bibliographies were included in the handout packets as was the draft of a co-authored book chapter about federal web sites for children and adolescents. ('Chapter Twenty-five: Federal and State Government Web Sites for Children and Adolescents'. Janet Stoeger Wilke and Diana J. Keith. In: Digital Resources and Librarians: Case Studies in Innovation, Invention, and Implementation. Pgs. 266 - 272. Edited by Patricia O’Brian Libutti. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2004.)

The Department planned and hosted the annual state-wide federal and state depository libraries meeting in June, 2000. During the morning session Nebraska's federal regional depository librarian and the librarian in charge of Nebraska state depositories updated government document librarians and staff on recent developments. The afternoon presentation by a representative from the Nebraska State Data Center was about Bureau of the Census products, emphasizing expected 2000 census publications. Fifteen librarians and staff from ten Nebraska state and federal depositories attended the morning meeting and 18 were in attendance in the afternoon.

Other outreach efforts in the past include tours for area genealogy groups and presentations for the University’s Summer Synergy programs.

Electronic Access

See also Internet Use Policy: Federal Depository Library Materials, Calvin T. Ryan Library and Public Service Policy: Electronic Federal Depository Library Materials, Calvin T. Ryan Library.

Computers in the Government Documents Department have the same capabilities as other public access computers in the Library and are upgraded on schedule with them. The Library furnishes ear phones for listening from its public access computers. It provides application software on all Library computers. A bibliographic instruction computer laboratory opened on the Library's main floor in October, 2000. A second student/public computer lab opened on the Library's lower level in the fall, 2002. The labs are open to anyone when not in use for library bibliographic instruction or information technology classes. All Library computers have CD/DVD drives and USB ports, full Internet access, and application software.

Access to individual federal document titles is available via the Library's online catalog. All newly received tangible documents are cataloged and linked if on-line. Older titles are selectively cataloged and linked. The Government Documents Department home page links to other titles and government sites.

Computers in the Library are available to the public during all hours the Library is open (92 1/2 hours per week, August - May; slightly shorter hours in the summer). Users on and off campus may access the Library's system and use federal and state government links and resources with no restrictions. The only exceptions to free access are indexes and databases restricted by vendor contract to use by the UNK community.

Computers are hooked into a networked printing system. Users may print from printers on any floor of the library. Student ID cards are encoded with free copies for networked printing at the start of each semester. When these are used, students must pay to have more copies put on their cards. The public must buy print cards. Three computers in the documents area print to the networked print system.

Within the constraints of its budget, the Library has initiated and maintained a commitment to providing access to electronic government information and will continue to do so in the future. To the extent that funding allows, the Library's hardware and software will be kept as current as possible.

The Future

Present trends indicate that federal agencies will continue to move from paper to electronic information dissemination. The impact of this shift has been much discussed in the professional literature and ranges from archival issues to indexing, access, and equipment issues. The Government Printing Office and Superintendent of Documents continue to plan for a more electronic depository library system. Priorities for the electronic depository should be access and indexing for each federal agency's home page, sub-agency pages, general reference titles, and individual titles. Accelerated assignment of PURL's will greatly assist with insuring permanent electronic access. Implications and implementation of the more electronic depository plan will affect the way depositories serve their clientele well into the future.

One certainty is that selective depositories will no longer be "selective". The issue then becomes one of sorting through what is available on-line and leading library users to what might be useful.

The responsibility for accessing government information will no longer rest almost solely with government documents departments. Other librarians will become more familiar with federal electronic information. Increasing the number of access options in the Library's online catalog will lead to a greater awareness and use of electronic government information for students, faculty, and the public.

Continuing efforts will be needed to identify on-line government sites and publications and publicize their availability. Service needs will change from on-site assistance and use of physical items in paper or microfiche to assistance with identifying likely sites and searching protocols. Major changes in the Library's service levels are not foreseen. The Library will continue to serve users who are familiar with needed resources and those who need a much higher level of assistance, whether the resource is a physical item or available electronically.

The Library will continue to be an regional resource for federal information in paper, microfiche, and electronic formats. It will act as both a repository for paper, fiche, and electronic products and as an alternative for users who do not have access to the Internet via their own computer.

The inexorable shift of federal government information from traditional formats to electronic dissemination is neither being led by librarians nor controlled by them. It has been mandated by Congress as a "cost saving" measure and the Government Printing Office must abide by what Congress dictates. There is no mandatory system that requires federal agencies to report electronic information they make available. There is no overall policy that ensures standard indexing, archiving, software, or format for agency publications.

The Government Documents Department of Calvin T. Ryan Library will stay abreast of future developments and, as best it can, within resource constraints, strive to continue to provide its users with services and access to federal government information in all formats.

* Appendix I needs revision. Revisions and updates in other sections of the Collection Development Policy supersede elements in this appendix. This appendix was approved in January 2001 with a last revision completed in June 2009.

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